FDR IS DEAD! On Thursday, the 12th day of April 1945, at the age of 69, The Commander-in-Chief of The United States Armed Forces and de facto leader of “the free World” in the apex of the World history’s largest war, had a sudden severe headache ….and died.
Number four in the series: “I am a Time Traveler from The Twentieth Century”
I guess you had to have lived in the Thirties and Forties, in the U.S., to understand what that meant. I was eleven years old and I was stunned. If you were alive on Friday, November 22, 1963,  or Tuesday, September 11, 2001, you may have some idea of the shock felt by The Nation, on April 12, 1945.
I was in the fifth year of a school where each school room had pictures of “The Three Most Important Men” and an American Flag.
Each day began standing with a hand over our heart.
“I pledge allegiance to The flag of The United States….”
On the front wall of each classroom, above the blackboards, were the predictable three icons:
THE AMERICAN TRINITY
Washington: founded the Nation! 
Lincoln: saved the Nation 1861-1865 The War Between the States! 
Roosevelt: saved the Nation from the cataclysmic Great Depression of The Thirties and was The Commander-in-Chief of the on-going World War 
The Twentieth Century: The American Century: The Year Nineteen forty-five; a “watershed ” of American History
Beginning the fourth decade of The 20th Century, Americans were numb.
i) In the aftermath of World War I, America was licking its wounds. The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 38 million: over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history. 
ii) prohibition, organized crime, two Constitutional Amendments. 
iii) the ravages of the Great Depression of The Thirties 
Although I was only seven years old, I remember the mood of the pre-war United States.
The Neutrality Acts were laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth of isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.
My father was The Chief Boy Scout for The Nortwest Arkansas Council. The Cub Scouts, Boy Scouts and Sea Scouts were the principal patriotic organization for boys too young to serve in the military. I had three uncles who fought in The War; Two in the Pacific and one in Europe. My grandmother and I raised an American Flag in front her house each morning and took it in at dusk.
I am submitting a long list of events critical to The Second World War to impress upon you the prolog and complexity of Roosevelt’s involvement. I want my readers to understand that President Roosevelt was leader of/ or significant participant in virtually every one of these steps. Many felt that Roosevelt was the “indispensable warrior” in the War. Harry Truman was not a participant, nor even informed of Roosevelt’s deep background or decisions. This information accentuated the loss caused by the death of FDR.
Outline of Critical Events Leading to, and during the Second World War:
Jan 30, 1933
Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany
Oct 3, 1935
Mussolini Invades Ethiopia
Italy, under the leadership of Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, invades Ethiopia.
May 1, 1937 USA Neutrality Act; President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the 1937 Neutrality Act, which bans travel on belligerent ships, forbids the arming of American merchant ships trading with belligerents, and issues an arms embargo with warring nations.
Jul 7, 1937 Japan Defeats China;The Japanese defeat Chinese forces in a clash near Peking, taking control of North China.
Sep 14, 1937 President Franklin D. Roosevelt forbids U.S. ships from carrying arms to China or Japan.
Oct 5, 1937 Roosevelt Quarantines War; In response to Japanese action in China, President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a speech in which he calls for peace-loving nations to act together to “quarantine” aggressors to protect the world from the “disease” of war.
Feb 20, 1938 Supports Japan; German Chancellor Adolf Hitler announces support for Japan.
May 14, 1938 Mussolini Joins Hitler In a speech in Rome, Benito Mussolini, fascist leader of Italy, promises to fight the democracies alongside Adolf Hitler’s should war break out.
May 17, 1938 Naval Expansion Act The U.S. Congress passes the Naval Expansion Act giving President Franklin D. Roosevelt one billion dollars to enlarge the navy.
Sep 12, 1938 Hitler Aims for Sudetenland Adolf Hitler is poised to invade and conquer the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.
Sep 29, 1938
Sudetenland and Appeasement
Leaders of France and Great Britain meet with representatives from Germany, including Adolf Hitler, to discuss Germany’s demands, ultimately granting Hitler the Sudetenland in the hopes of gaining “peace with honor.” The Czechs are not consulted.
Sep 29, 1938
Hitler Promises Peace
Adolf Hitler, in return for the Sudetenland, promises to leave the rest of Czechoslovakia alone.
Nov 10, 1938
During the German Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass), 7500 Jewish businesses are looted, 191 synagogues are set afire, nearly 100 Jews are killed, and tens of thousands are sent to concentration camps
Mar 15, 1939
Hitler Annexes Czechoslovakia
Adolf Hitler reneges on the promise made in September of 1938 and takes all of Czechoslovakia.
Roosevelt Writes Hitler and Mussolini
President Franklin D. Roosevelt writes letters to both Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, requesting they promise not to attack a list of nations for at least ten years. Hitler would respond on behalf of the Italian leader and himself, assuring Roosevelt that he had nothing to fear.
Senate Blocks Aid to Allies
A group of U.S. Senators block the President’s request for permission to offer economic aid to Britain and France in case of war.
Jun 6, 1939
St. Louis Refusal
Passenger ship St. Louis, containing 907 Jewish refugees, begins its journey back to Europe after the United States refuses to grant it permission to dock.
Aug 23, 1939
Stalin and Hitler Sign Nonaggression Pact
Germany and the Soviet Union agree to a nonaggression pact leaving the Soviets free to strengthen their western frontier, and Hitler free to attack Poland.
Sep 1, 1939
Germany Invades Poland
German troops invade Poland on the ground while Hitler’s air force bombs Polish cities from the sky.
September 3, 1939 Britain and France Declare War honoring their commitment to Poland.President Franklin D. Roosevelt invokes the Neutrality Act but notes, “Even a neutral cannot be asked to close his mind or his conscience.”
Nov 3, 1939
Congress Lifts Aid Embargo Congress grants President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s request to revise neutrality laws, to repeal an arms embargo so that munitions could be sold to Britain and France, and to prevent American ships from sailing into war zones.
Apr 1, 1940
Hitler Seizes Low Countries Adolf Hitler takes neutral Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg.
Germany Pummels France
German fighter planes and ground troops pummel France.
Hitler Defeats France
Britain forces retreat from France and Adolf Hitler’s armies defeat French forces.
Allied Support Grows
The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies is founded.
Fleet Moved to Pearl Harbor
President Franklin D. Roosevelt moves the United States Pacific Fleet base from San Diego, California to Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
May 16, 1940
Roosevelt Increases Defense Spending
In a speech to Congress, President Franklin D. Roosevelt requests new defense spending, an enlarged army, and an expanded air fleet. Public opinion favors the new defense program.
Jun 10, 1940
Italy Attacks France
Benito Mussolini’s Italian forces attack France from the south.
Jun 22, 1940
France Surrenders France, crushed, surrenders to Germany and signs an armistice. Great Britain now stands alone against the Axis powers.
Jul 26, 1940
U.S. Withholds Gas from Japan The United States orders gasoline withheld from Japan sparking protest from the Japanese government.
Congress Enacts Draft Congress appropriates $16 billion for defense needs, and enacts the first peacetime draft in American history.
Sep 3, 1940
Roosevelt Aids Britain
President Franklin D. Roosevelt makes a deal to give Great Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for naval bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and sites in the Caribbean and the South Atlantic.
Sep 25, 1940
U.S. Extends Japanese Embargo The United States extends the Japanese embargo to include iron and steel.
Sep 27, 1940
Japan Joins Axis Responding to the embargoes imposed by the United States, Japan joins the German-Italian coalition.
Oct 29, 1940
Draftees to Camps The first draft numbers are drawn, sending thousands of draftees to drill camps all over the country.
Nov 1940 Roosevelt Reelected for Third Term
In the presidential election, Democrats break with the two-term tradition and renominate Franklin D. Roosevelt for a third term. Republicans nominate Wendell L. Willkie, a public-utilities executive who shared FDR’s views on the war in Europe. Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Wendell L. Willkie by nearly 5 million popular votes.
Dec 29, 1940
Arsenal of Democracy
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a fireside chat to the American people announcing, “We must be the great arsenal of democracy.”
Jan 6, 1941
Before the U.S. Congress, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a “lend-lease” program, which would deliver arms to Great Britain to be paid for following the war’s end. Congress approves the bill.
Mar 30, 1941
U.S. Seizes Axis Ships
President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Coast Guard to seize German ships that sail into American ports. 65 Axis ships are held in “protective custody.”
Jun 16, 1941
Axis Consulates Closed
President Franklin D. Roosevelt demands Germany and Italy close their American consulates located in the United States.
Jun 22, 1941
Germany Invades Soviet Union
Germany invades the Soviet Union violating the Nonaggression Pact. U.S. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson estimates that it will take Hitler less than three months to conquer the Soviet Union.
Jun 24, 1941
US Aids Soviets
The United States extends lend-lease aid to the Soviet Union.
Aug 9, 1941
Roosevelt and Churchill Draft Atlantic Charter
On a British battleship, President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Winston Churchill. The two leaders write up the Atlantic Charter.
Aug 17, 1941
Roosevelt Warns Japanese
President Franklin D. Roosevelt warns the Japanese government to cease all aggression toward neighboring countries or else face United States forces.
Sep 4, 1941
Greer Provoked by the American destroyer Greer, a German submarine fires on the ship. In response to the attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the navy to shoot any Axis battleships they encounter.
Lend-Lease to Soviets
The United States extends “lend-lease” to the Soviet Union.
Nov 3, 1941
Japanese Decide to Attack
The Japanese government decides to attack Pearl Harbor if negotiations with the United States fail.
Nov 29, 1941
U.S. Learns Japanese Plan
U.S. Naval cryptographers learn from secret code that Japan plans aggressive action if an agreement with the United States is not met.
Dec 1, 1941
Japan Ignores US Requests
Japan dismisses American demands to withdraw forces from China.
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
Japanese fighter planes attack the American base at Pearl Harbor destroying U.S. aircraft and naval vessels, and killing 2,355 U.S. servicemen and 68 civilians.
Dec 11, 1941
US At War
Germany and Italy, Japan’s axis partners, declare war on the United States. The United States declares war on Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Jan 6, 1942
Largest Budget in History
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his State of the Union address in which he proposes a massive government spending budget, the largest in American history.
Oct 23, 1942
North African Theatre
In the first major Allied offensive, British and U.S. armies attack Germany’s Africa Korps on the Mediterranean chasing forces back toward Libya.
Nov 8, 1942
US Troops Land In Africa
Under the leadership of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, U.S. troops land in Algiers, Oran, and Casablanca in North Africa.
Jan 1, 1943
Chuchill and Roosevelt Plan
Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt meet in Casablanca in North Africa to plan attacks on all fronts, to invade Sicily and Italy, to send forces to the Pacific, and to better aid the Soviet Union.
Jan 31, 1943
Russians Trap Germany
The Russian Red Army traps and captures German armies that had invaded the Soviet Union.
Sep 8, 1943
Italy Surrenders The Italian government officially surrenders to the Allied powers; still, German forces occupy much of Italy.
Dec 1, 1943
The Allied powers announce the Cairo Declaration in which all three declare their intention to establish an international organization to maintain the peace and security of the world.
Jun 1, 1944
Allies Assemble In England, the Allied powers assemble 2.9 million men, 2.5 million tons of supplies, 11,000 airplanes, and hundreds of ships in preparation for D-Day.
Jun 4, 1944
Rome falls to Allied forces.
Jun 6, 1944
D-Day: The first of nearly 3 million Allied soldiers arrive in Normandy, on the northern shores of France.
Jul 24, 1944
Normandy and Brittany
Allied troops take large portions of Normandy and Brittany initiating a German retreat.
Aug 25, 1944
Paris Liberated U.S. forces, aided by a Free French division, liberate Paris from Nazi control.
Nineteen forty-five was another “hinge-of-history” year.
Notable events that I intend to review in subsequent posts:
The Yalta Conference,
The surrender of Germany,
The formation of the United Nations,
The development and use of the atomic bomb,
The surrender of Japan.
Charles Clanton Rogers November 13, 2015
Please leave your geography in the comments section. Please feel free to Reblog or Share
 The Assassination of President Kennedy.
 Destruction of The Twin Towers, WTC
 While the Revolution of 1776-1783 created the United States,[Washington]
 The Civil War is the central event in America’s historical consciousnessthe; Civil War of 1861-1865 determined what kind of nation it would be.[Lincoln]
 The emotional toll of The Great Depression: [Roosevelt] “One of the most salient factors linking economic recession to psychological distress is unemployment. Job loss has a powerful negative effect on psychological well-being. Those who lose their jobs tend to report increased anxiety, depression, and somatization. Unemployment has a profound influence on our sense of identity. Jobs can be a source of prestige and social recognition, a basis for our evaluations of self-worth. When someone loses their job, they also lose the social status that the job provided. This places them at greater risk of facing stigma and discrimination, both of which are linked to psychological distress.”
 The total number of fatalities includes about 11 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians. The Allies lost about 6 million military personnel while the [enemy] lost about 4 million. At least 2 million died from diseases and 6 million went missing, presumed dead. About two-thirds of military deaths in World War I was in battle, unlike the conflicts that took place in the 19th century when the majority of deaths were due to disease. Nevertheless, disease, including the 1918 flu pandemic and deaths while held as prisoners of war, still caused about one-third of total military deaths for all belligerents.
 Source: Boundless. “The Mood in America.” Boundless U.S. History. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/from-isolation-to-world-war-ii-1930-1943-26/the-beginning-of-the-war-201/the-mood-in-america-1105-9742/