‘Pay no attention to the man behind the curtain!” (OZ: “The Great and Powerful Wizard.”)
By the completion of Frank Baum’s classic allegory parable: The Wizard of Oz, everyone sees that the man behind the curtain is a charlatan. For the entire tale, the protagonist have been deceived by an ordinary liar attempting to convince them that he was the Great and Powerful Oz when he had no powers at all except for deception. His obfuscation was revealed when Toto simply pulled back the curtain.
Homo Sapiens started thinking of more than survival, let us say fifty-thousand years ago. I propose that man’s search for clear thinking and truth, was frustrated by three curtains for 49,500 of the 50,000 years. 
That is for 99% of the history of the mind. I submit to you: there have been three curtains obscuring the answers men sought.
Curtain number one: The Earth, as an article of faith, was believed to be the center of everything berfore 1473, Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo took down the first curtain. Nicholas Copernicus, Renaissance mathematician and astronomer formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun, rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.Lived: Feb 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543 
Galileo Galileo 15 February 1564– 8 January 1642), “was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, and the “father of science”. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honor).”
Curtain #2 THE BIOLOGY Before the nineteenth Century humans were believed to be a unique creation among living things.
Darwin’s unparalleled epiphany announced that all life, including man, has a common ancestor. Man shares nearly all the qualities of animals, with some skills unique to humans.
1859 Charles Robert Darwin, FRS was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from a common ancestor.
Feb 12, 1809 – Apr 19, 1882 (age 73) Charles Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species” has been voted the most influential academic book in all history in an online poll. Darwin’s book, which founded evolutionary biology when it was published in 1859, was the undisputed winner with a quarter of the votes submitted by the public. The poll asked voters to choose from 20 books that were selected by experts.[CNN]
On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
There is a mountain of evidence demonstrating an·thro·po·mor·phism, the attribution of human characteristics or behavior to an animal, “human” qualities” in non-human animals.The following link, by Robert Sapolsky, graphically reveals the great extent of common qualities and the few, critical differences relating humans and non-human animals. The evidence is overwhelming that homo Sapien is an animal with a few skills unique to humans. 
The link requires 15 minutes to view but is highly relevant and well worth your time.
Professor Sapolsky living with Baboon tribe. 
In addition is the illustrative Story of The alpha wolf, Twenty-one of Yellowstone: 
The Third Curtain is Fear; Mortality. (It is said:”The brave man dies but one; the coward dies a thousand deaths.)
Until five hundred years ago, humans interpreted their perceptions to be the reality. Many people in the Twenty-first Century fail to recognize how te mind can be misled. Perception is often distorted and never absolute when tested objectively. I believe it is likely that humans have sought reality and truth from the dawn of civilization. The recognition of mortality causes Fear. Fear un-docks the mind from certainty which accentuates the fear. The lack of certainty makes man aware of the unknown. I do not believe that humans fear adversity; but unknowns. Defending against the unknown leads to the construction of stories. Story telling apparently dates from the invention of language and is the beginning of that which we call “history.” Many of these stories are the basis of the “Western Canon”.
“Human megalomania [has] suffered its third and most wounding blow from the psychological research of the present time which seeks to prove to the ego that it is not even master in its own house, but must content itself with scanty information of what is going on unconsciously in its mind.” 
In spite of the opinions of many critics of Freud’s period, 1895, only a little over a hundred years ago is a useful milestone to mark the beginning of attempts, with some objectively, to examine the mind. Psychoanalysis was founded by Freud, who wrote about his theory and method from until he died in 1939. Over those years, and after his death, he attracted both admirers and detractors . The human mind has only begun to peek behind the third curtain.
David Kahneman…framing choices to people’s tendency to substitute an easy-to-answer question for one that is harder several decades of academic research … suggest that people place too much confidence in human judgment.  cf. David Eagleman 
Conclusion: I believe that scientists, physicians, psychologists, and humanists have only partly pulled back the third curtain.
A hundred years after psychoanalysts, psychiatrist, neurologist, neurophysiologist, and neurosurgeons, scientist are not certain but that we are not just nice stories we tell ourselves and each other.
We are faced daily by “authoritative wizards” hiding behind this third curtain.
Let us listen to Abraham Lincoln and attempt to “bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle… to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”
“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”Abraham Lincoln
Dedicated to Mrs. Bonnie Brown, Biology Department, Maryville College, 1952-1956
Charles Clanton Rogers, AB, MD, FACR, emeritus professor, GWU November 24, 2015
Please leave a comment. ReBlogs are welcome.
 L. Frank Baum, Wizard of Oz, Published: Dec 31, 1899, Publisher: Public Domain
 Yuval Noah Harari, Sapien, “A Brief History of Humankind”.
 In 1916, Sigmund Freud delivered the eighteenth of his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. There, he spoke about the three great blows that “the naïve self-love of men has had to submit to … ” It has since been suggested that psychoanalysis never really existed as an truism that can be applied to almost any movement or school in history): all our minds have are the stories we tell ourselves.
 Nicholas Copernicuss, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) 1543
 Galileo Galilei, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632; in Italian Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)
Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638; in Italian, Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze)
 Charles Darwin, On The Origin Of The Species, 1859Lived: Feb 12, 1809 – Apr 19, 1882
 The Amazing Inner Lives of Animals, Tim Flannery OCTOBER 8, 2015 ISSUE, Beyond Words: What Animals Think and Feel,
by The Amazing Inner Lives of Animals, Henry Holt
 The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins by Hal Whitehead and Luke Rendell, University of Chicago Press, Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York
 Robert Sapolsky: The uniqueness of humans | TED Talk | TED.com
Video embedded · At Stanford University, primatologist Robert Sapolsky offers a fascinating and funny look at human behaviors which the rest of the animal kingdom ; Salposky “Primate Memoirs
 David Eagleman, cited by Burchard Bilger, “What a brush with death taught David Eagleman about the mysteries of time and the brain.- The Possibilian, THE NEW YORKER, April 25, 2011 “Ceebrating the vastness of our ignorance.
 David Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow, Thinking, Fast and Slow is a best-selling 2011 book by Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics winner Daniel Kahneman which summarizes research that he conducted over decades, often in collaboration with Amos Tversky. It covers all three phases of his career: his early days working on cognitive biases, his work on prospect theory, and his later work on happiness.The book’s central thesis is a dichotomy between two modes of thought: “System 1” is fast, instinctive and emotional; “System 2” is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. The book delineates cognitive biases associated with each type of thinking, starting with Kahneman’s own research on loss aversion. From framing choices to people’s tendency to substitute an easy-to-answer question for one that is harder, the book highlights several decades of academic research to suggest that people place too much confidence in human judgment.
 Abraham Lincoln, “Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865